Chapter 10: Separation of Form and Name
22nd October 1989
All you patrons have come here to train your body, your speech and your mind. You start off with observing precepts in order to discipline your own Mindfulness so that your meditation can be fruitful and you can attain wisdom. That is practicing meditation using the Five Khandha (Aggregates), Form and Name as A-raman.a (Objects of Concentration).
The body’s state of being is Form. The mind’s state of knowing about occurrence in life is A-raman.a. The blending of both bears fruit in the Four Foundations of Mindfulness, such as Ka-ya-nupassana- satipat.t.ha-na for example.
Your mind can be composed by pointing Mindfulness to the body, then we consider. When we move, the mind orders and the body moves. While moving, always be mindful and have clear consciousness in the present moment. Our diffused anxious Mind will be concentrated on the corporeal base. This is called Kaya-nupassana-.
It is clear inside when Mindfulness can control the Mind. Whichever way the body moves, it is full of morality because we are mindful and conscious. When we move in the present moment we are fully conscious of our movement.
Such feeling of full awareness is sampajanna (Clear Consciousness). This Clear Consciousness is the knowing in the present moment. Sati (Mindfulness) is the awareness of when the moving is about to happen. Sampajanna (Clear Consciousness) is full awareness of when the moving is taking place, at the same time that the mind realizes. Thus is sati-sampaja๑๑a (Mindfulness-Clear Consciousness).
Then, we realize movement in the state of form. We are aware which way our body moves. While contemplating on the present moment, wisdom arises. It is a true realization in our own emotion. If the criteria are not like this, the knowledge arisen at that moment is not true. We just know that the movement occurs, without having Mindfulness and Clear Consciousness. So, it is just a mundane happening. The practitioner has to contemplate in detail. Having mindfulness and clear consciousness is difficult. It’s not an easy task.
However, it is easy for a frequent dhamma practitioner. Whenever you are about to move, use your mindfulness. Use your clear consciousness to be aware of the present moment while you are moving. Wisdom or knowledge will arise in order to realize in detail how and which way the Mind will order the Body to move. We will clearly and finely realize our own movement. That is called knowing of the natural condition.
In order to know this, the mind has to be refined. In order to have a refined Mind, one has to have a concentrated mind, focusing on the body movement. The Mindfulness is static in the Object of Concentration, yet it realizes that the body is moving. It follows every step of the movement. The word ‘follows’ refers to clear consciousness. It follows the Mind. It realizes when the body moves, turns left and right, bends or stretches. It is a wholesome knowledge. That is called Form and Name.
Moving is the Form. The Form moves. But the Mind that realizes is the Name. It is comprised of wisdom. Wisdom is refined, gentle, personal knowledge of the present moment. Wisdom in this case knows about volitional activities, i.e., knowing about the Five Aggregates, which are comprised of Form, Feeling, Perception, Mental formation and Consciousness. The thing that comprises the Five Aggregates is called ‘Form’. It is merely a Form that moves, changes and is not permanent. It can deteriorate. It is the appointment in the form of body and can change. This is called natural Form.
As for the Feeling, it is one of the Aggregates called Feeling Aggregate. The word Feeling Aggregate stems from the fact that we have no control over it. If we want to realize the second Aggregate, which is Feeling, we have to use Mindfulness and Clear Consciousness as well. Disregard the Form Aggregate. Do not concentrate on the Form anymore. Move your Object of Concentration to Feeling, or the Feeling Aggregate.
This Feeling Aggregate is very important, like aching. It is bodily displeasure. Once it happens to us, it must have its form because Perception dresses it up. When the Feeling occurs like this, we have to use Mindfulness to concentrate on Feeling. Concentrate deeper into the Inner Feeling. Clear consciousness realizes the aching in the present moment. Mindfulness tells us that it is Feeling.
Clear consciousness will tell the degree of aching. The meditator has to understand this point first, the Feeling Aggregate point. Then concentrate on the Aggregate that occurs to ourselves.
At this stage, how do we separate it? We use our Mindfulness to realize that it is Feeling. So, we use Mindfulness to control Feeling of the Mind. Use the Mind to focus on the places that ache or are stiff. Concentrate on the place. Then we use knowing, which is Perception. It then comes about. When Perception comes about, we contemplate noting ‘aching…aching…thus.’ The word ‘thus’ restrains your Mind to have Mindfulness.
This word ‘thus’ is important. It helps us to have Mindfulness. It causes realization to arise without being dispersed in the aching Feeling. Then we continue to keep our Mindfulness on ‘aching…aching…’ Take a long breath and keep your Mind adhered to the Outer Feeling.
The Inner Feeling is Form, Name and the Five Aggregates as an Object of Concentration. So, the Inner Feeling is nothing more than Form and Name. Why is there Form and Name at that point? The answer is that there are Contact and Perception in the Feeling itself when you contemplate noting ‘aching…aching…’
Aching is a kind of karma or a kind of obstacle for the meditator, who may not be able to tolerate the pain. So, we have to train ourselves to tolerate and be patient. In the beginning, we have to force ourselves against it because we have just started and are not familiar with it.
Some people have never sat with both legs tucked back to one side or sat in the lotus position for a long time. They often change their sitting posture. So, they do not know the Law of Karma called aching. We cannot understand aching if we change posture too often. Having sat for some time, we get up and walk. Having walked until tired, we sit down. Having sat until being stiff, we lie down. If we keep changing the posture like this, we cannot know the truth. We can only know the untrue.
Sometime, it aches severely. You have to study this Aggregate until you pass the lesson. This lesson is Feeling Aggregate. It occurs to you personally. It is the Feeling of not being well that you have no control over and seems that you cannot put up with.
You have to force yourself, using Mindfulness to contemplate until you realize the level of pain and how it aches. Then you set your Mindfulness on it and focus on it with your Mind. Look at the pain and movement of the Feeling. Sometime the degree increases. Sometime it decreases. You realize that you cannot control it. Then you understand this Aggregate. This is called the Inner Feeling.
The word Inner Feeling can simply be explained as Feeling in the Mind. Mind is adhered to Feeling. It knows the state of Feeling. It clearly realizes that this Aggregate occurs from the dressing up of Perception and will deteriorate according to its nature. It also changes. The pain also moves. We then catch the Inner Feeling, that this is how it aches.
Once we realize and understand this, we then have wisdom insight. We realize the idea behind the Feeling Object, that this is how it aches. Others do not have the same pain because they are different. It is difficult for us to know the other’s feeling. We can only know our own. Once we know this, we contemplate on it. The Mind is then fluent and concentration occurs.
When concentration occurs because Perception dresses it up, lightness occurs in the natural condition. That is moving from the highest point of pain downward. It gradually reduces until it ceases. It has yielded to us then.
When the suffering feeling has yielded to us, we will then know the Inner Feeling. That is knowing the nature of the Inner Feeling or knowing the nature of Inner Form and Name. It is called knowing of the present moment. Once we know of the present moment, insight occurs. That is the wisdom that can wholesomely know about the Volitional Activities and the dressing up.
Mind is then separated. Form is then separated. Because they depend on each other, it aches very much. Once they are separated, Tilakkhan ฺa is clear – Aniccam (impermanent), Dukkham. (suffering) and Anatta- (selfless). Feeling is not permanent. Thus it ends there.
This Feeling aches deeply inside the bone. But we have never known about it because we have never fixed our Mind to it. Despite that, we move it by changing the posture to walk, sit, lie down or admiring the scenery. That Feeling goes on oppressing us because we cannot catch it. We do not know its nature. So, we do not know what our feeling is. We only know it at the surface that it aches.
Knowing the Inner Feeling is, knowing our Volitional Activities through wisdom. We understand our compounded thing well, that the nature is like this for everybody. There is nothing to mix with this knowledge. Our Object of Concentration enters the state of One-pointedness of mind in that Feeling Concentration. Wisdom then realizes that Volitional Activities are not permanent. There is no need to pamper it.
There is nothing good in this Inner Feeling. There is only a link to the consequence of ache, pain, thirst, tired and stiff. There is no need to undo the stiffness and pain. They will not go away. But if we thoroughly know about the Inner Feeling, we can separate Mind into one part. Split Form into another part. The state of Form and Name are then separated. It is called separating the Feeling Volition. That is to know about Feeling.
The Outer Feeling is Form. Once you separate Mind, it is not adhered to Feeling. Mind does not ache with it. Mind is separated to enjoy concentration. Wisdom from meditation arises. The Feeling of pain then vanishes. Why is this so?
I will explain to you patrons that whenever we know about Feeling and wisdom arises, Mind is not adhered to it. You have no attachment. Then you know the truth according to its existing nature. All compounded things are not permanent – aniccam. . Because of impermanence, it is suffering – dukkham. . Mind is full of displeasure. Mind is adhered to displeasure or Feeling. So, Feeling occurs and does not go away, thus.
Meditators have to understand this point too. If you do not fully understand, you may stop after a period of contemplation and the Feeling does not go away. Then you move to sit, lie down or chat with each other. I can assure you that you will not see Tilakkan.a – Impermanence, Suffering and Selflessness at all. You will regard the Tilakkhana as a genuine yet uncertain thing. Contrarily, you will regard the uncertainty as permanent. This is like wearing coloured glasses, you cannot see the true colour. You see the dry grass as green. Once the green glasses are removed you will then see that the grass is dry, not green at all. This is a metaphor.
Realization of the truth has to occur in Feeling. Not only know that it is stiff, painful or just occurring, existing and ceasing. Theoretically, you also have to know how it occurs, how it happens to yourself and how it changes.
Where does Feeling come from? It comes from impermanence or aniccata-. The Mind adheres to pain, stomachache, headache or chest pain from heart disease.
We understand it this way. So, everything attaches tightly to each other. Mind clings tightly to it. In this case you will not see the genuine thing – Tilakkhan.a; therefore, you cannot separate Feeling from your Mind. Feeling Form occurs and is dressed up nicely by Volition. So, it aches strongly. We are not subjected to it.
Take one example that Mind is not subjected to aching Feeling, but it is absorbed in our conversation instead. It can be absorbed by spectacular sight instead. This is called forgetting the ache or the stiffness. This is how it is separated.
It is just that Mind knows that Feeling occurs, exists, changes and ceases through dressing up of Volition. Then Mind realizes selflessness and impermanence. It is like this. Then the clinging Mind retreats backward. It is not adhered to Feeling anymore. That stiffness and pain suddenly vanish through the dressing up of Volition. There occur Impermanence, Suffering and Selflessness. Our Mind enters the concentrated state and wisdom insight. This is called being able to separate Form and Name.
It separates each Aggregate into parts. That is the Feeling Aggregate. Mind is then separated from pleasure, suffering, gladness, sadness, pleasant feeling, unpleasant feeling, grief, joy, continuous suffering or occasion suffering. It does not cling to those anymore.
Mind fits in Form and Name perfectly. How can occasional suffering come to us. Continuous suffering goes away, too. So, what do we suffer about? Wisdom, the knowledge of Volitional Activities, will tell us not to cling to the dressing up when it occurs.
When Perception arises, it is its nature to dress up. It cannot be stopped. That is why one feels the pain all over the body. This is like when you have a fever. Separate Feeling away. The fever is hot. There is a serious headache. Mind clings to that ache. Separate it into a confined area.
When you use Form, Name and the Five Aggregates as Objects of Concentration, your Mind will not have fever. You only have a fever at the body, which is always dressed up by Perception. But your Mind can be separated into the State of Name. The natural condition that occurs like this is called wisdom, which has an ability to clearly realize Volitional Activities.
The genuine knowledge is knowing of the true state of Volition that occurs according to its nature by colour, by shape and by sign. Knowing how it aches has to be realized by oneself. According to the vocabulary, it is called paccattam. One can only realize this by oneself. Others cannot realize and understand it.
However, in this meditation theory, we have to understand the point of wisdom. That is separating Feeling. Use our Mind to work on something else. Since Feeling does not concern the body, Mind cannot cling to it to cause more pain.
So, we have to depend on meditation to realize that compounded things are not permanent. When we do not tend to it, Volition dresses up. Contact arises. Then there is pannatti (appointment) to call it as ‘ache’. So, we do not know the degree of pain. It is called maya (illusion). The fake thing is called mayasathaya. The genuine is not an illusion. It is genuinely, personally realized through Objects of Concentration using Form, Name and the Five Aggregates.
Severe pain becomes slight pain because Mind is not adhered to it. If Mind is tightly adhered to it, it is very painful. If Mind clings loosely to it, it is not so painful. If Mind is not attached to it, how can it be painful? But this is the last stage.
But the way to develop this meditation practice is concentrating on the Feeling Aggregate. Keep Mind in one point of concentration. Wisdom will arise in the Feeling Aggregate. That is, genuinely knowing the change by its colour, shape and sign. In that feeling, wisdom realizes occurring, existing and ceasing. Feeling then suddenly vanishes. It becomes sparkling. Feeling and mind that used to exist together have become separated. They split into confined areas. So, one will know what should be and what should not or how proper it is.
It does not quit after aching and moving around. You cannot find the true thing. But beginners do it step by step, though. Practice 5 to 10 minutes to acquire experience. Collect the lesson bit by bit. Everyone has to have painful Feeling. I’ve also had it. Am I aching now? Yes! Do you know if I feel a lot of pain or just a little? You don’t know. Who knows? The one who owns it knows how painful it is. But the owner does not pay attention to it and separates it aside. Mind is not attached to it. It becomes the Inner Feeling that can solve the stiffness problem.
For example, you have a chronic pain in the leg. You cling to it by contemplating noting ‘aching…aching’. When the concentration arises from reciting the word, it is called point catching.
What does meditation mean? Meditation means focusing on one point. Being dressed in one set of attire is called meditation. When you are working and paying no attention to something else, you are considered working with concentration. So, when Feeling occurs and you keep your mind concentrated on it without paying attention to something else, it is called Feeling meditation. Once meditation arises, Mind is clear. Mind is then calmed down into meditation. In noting the Feeling, the Five Aggregates in Feeling Form occurs, exists, changes and disappears. The heavy Feeling becomes lighter.
Mind is crystal clear inside. You can see here that this is Impermanence. It is not certain. It aches and calms down and aches again. It is not that “I can meditate well. I’ve attained a high level of nana (Insight). I do not feel the pain now.” That’s not true. It’s a matter of much or little. Everybody has to experience the Five Aggregates.
Form is on its own accord. The Feeling Aggregate mixes in the Form. But we separate it and name it other Aggregates, which are Feeling, Perception, Consciousness and Volition. They can be summarized as Name and Form.
Feeling is still Feeling. Name realizes pain. Perception is memory that perceives. We have memory in the Perception Aggregate. Once we have meditative concentration, we can remember it without forgetting. We remember it in our wisdom. What do we remember? Form, Name and The Five Aggregates!
The State of Name is meditation in Perception. It will not be forgotten. If you attach to the feeling when your Mind suffers and die at that time, you will surely go to hell. If you attach to the feeling when your mind is happy and you die at that time you will go to heaven, Sugatipatikamkha. This is the important meaningful point in Feeling.
Can Perception remember Feeling? Oh! Yes. If we used to be in pain or used to do anything, it can remember. Aching at the leg again! The Perception remembers it. But we lack Mindfulness and Clear Consciousness. What is this patron? Perception or memory! But where do they come from? The Perception Aggregate is stable. It points to meditation by the reciting factor, comprised of Mindfulness and Clear Consciousness. It can separate Form and Name.
The good-tempered person has a stable Mind. The calm person is a sage. Once Mind is stable, Perception is not cut off. Perception is memory. Trained Perception is sub-consciousness as in Citta-nupassana- satipat.t.ha-na.
Citta-nupassana-, which is the third Foundation of Mindfulness, is there to note down Mind. Mind is a natural state that thinks of Objects and can perceive the emotion for a long time like a tape recorder. When it is reminded, it recurs. Perception is a kind of duty. This is Citta-nupassana- satipat.t.ha-na.
Perplexity is the nature of Mind. It has to change. But Objects of Concentration that Mind can remember usually have something to do with the Perception Aggregate. What it can remember well has to be comprised of Mindfulness and Clear Consciousness. Satima- sampaja-no. It recurs in the Volition of Perception Aggregate.
Where do Mindfulness and Clear Consciousness come from? They come from contemplation. Where does contemplation come from? It comes from practising the Four Foundations of Mindfulness. Where do walking, standing, sitting and lying down come from? They come from Indri-ya (sense-faculties). Be responsible for each duty. Contemplate when the eyes see the sight, the ears hear the sound and when the nose smells the odour. Keep your mindfulness by always contemplating in order to record them in your Perception. This is connecting to meditation.
There are two types of memory – good and bad. Memory that does not help survival is the memory that comes from lust, anger and ignorance. People can remember these well. Why do we have memory that comes from anger? Maybe it is because we have had a fight with them the day before yesterday. Can we remember that last year we hit each other on the head? Yes! What is the ‘thing’ that remembers? Perception memorizes it.
This is citta-nupassana- satipat.t.ha-na – the objects of the Mind. We have Perception to imprint the good and the bad. If we memorize too much of the bad, we can have neurosis. If we memorize the good, we can be clever. Mind is clear on the good path.
If we remember the bad, our Mind will always be demeritorious. Even if it has long been forgotten, anger can suddenly occur as soon as you see a person sitting down. Memory or previous Perception recurs, that this person had a quarrel with me three years ago. Why did it retain a bad thing? Because Form and Name cannot be separated. Also, goodness and badness cannot be separated. So, it retains both goodness and badness. This is like coming to make merit yet not being able to get rid of sin, or coming to be a monk yet not being able to get rid of wickedness. How can you become good? It tends to incise the badness not the goodness. This is a kind of Perception. If you come to meditate and are able to separate Form and Name, you can separate good and bad. Then throw the bad away, keep only the good. Separate the merit aside. Throw the demerit away. Separate greed, anger and ignorance.
Where can it be separated? When the eyes see a sight, ask yourself if you like it. If yes, it is greed. If not, it is anger. Remember it well. The eyes and the sight are different. Between sight and eyes, what is Form and what is Name? Once separated, they go apart. Greed, anger and ignorance die down.
You come here to make merit, why do you bring sin with you. You come here to do good things, why do you bring wickedness with you? You come to be human, why do you bring a monkey with you? It is a pity for meditation practitioners You shouldn’ t.
All righteous people and Buddhist assembly, take Form, Name and the Five Aggregates as your Objects of Concentration. ‘Sound’. “They scolded me”. I remember that. Keep that in Mind. If you do not contemplate on ‘sound’, and still keep the scolding voice in Mind, you will fret.
This is the Law of Karma. Where can you run away from scolding noises? Is there any place? So, you had better separate Form and Name. Then your Mind will be excellent like a monk. When your Mind is good you will not do bad things. We tape-record everything in our Mind. If you cannot separate Form and Name, your Mind will be demeritorious as explained.
I join in rejoicing in the merit with dhamma practitioners. Do separate Form and Name. Separate goodness and badness from each other. Do not mix them together. It causes confusion. The mixture of good and bad results in impertinence as aforesaid. If you do not contemplate on ‘sound’, ‘sight’ or ‘seeing’ not even ‘smelling’, you get only sin. There is no need to find other wat (temple). Go to measure your body, speech and mind, inside and outside according to the Four Foundations of Mindfulness, as I have explained.
Credit: Page Link