Chapter 11: Virtues Partaking of Enlightening in Practice


Phra Dhamsinghapuracariya
5th December 1989

Today I will explicate the dhamma practice to separate form and name in the Virtues Partaking of Enlightenment to all patrons, so as to enable you to use it as the principle of your practice according to the Buddha’s teaching.

I let you practice without being concerned with theory. I let you keep on searching the cause and effect so the merit arises from the method of practice. I let you do so because you can discard your previous knowledge, which is self pride in your life, from your mind.

Real practice stems from the heart. That is bha-vana- (mental culture). It is a clear wisdom, which automatically arises. That is the right practice to accomplish the truth.

That is why you are not allowed to read or talk. I have repeated my advice about ‘eating little, sleeping little, practicing a lot’ for a long time. If you can follow this advice you will accomplish the knowledge that the Buddha had found by himself. It is called the free-from-suffering knowledge. Then it can be separated into form, name and the Five Aggregates: Aramana (Object of Consciousness), Ayatana (the Twelve Bases), Dhatu (natural conditions), Indriya (faculties), Bala (the Five Energies), all coming from meditation practice.

Arahants in the time of the Buddha, with Phra Maha Kassapa Thera presiding, convocated to settle questions of doctrine and fix the text of the Scriptures, in order to recite, memorize and record the Tipit.aka as the text reference that has been studied and practised to the present.

Locating a tranquil place at the forest edge, under a tree, is an act to develop a tranquil mind. When the mind is pacified and not confused, wisdom arises in the samkhara (volition) and becomes consciousness. This consciousness acts by separating form and name to identify the Five Aggregates as Objects of Consciousness. This method is considered the main point of practice.

But practice surely came before Scripture. The Buddha practiced until he was enlightened before he identified Citta (mind), Cetasika (mental state), Ru-pa (form) and Nibba-na (the extinction of all defilements and suffering) thus.

In practice there remains two, Sati (mindfulness) and Sampaja๑๑a (clear consciousness), that have to be contemplated. Use the Mindfulness to consider the Mind, making the Mind know the right job. Then there remains one, that is carefulness, making right livelihood. This is the practice principle.

Now I will explicate the practical side of Bodhipakkhiyadhamma (the Virtues partaking of enlightenment) to all patrons. When analyzed, the word Bodhipakkhiyadhamma offers a meaning like this. Bodhi means ‘to know’. In the sense of this word bodhi, ‘to know’ infers knowing how to eliminate defilements. That is, knowing of the Four Noble Truths. Pakkhiya means ‘on the side of’. So, Bodhipakkhiyadhamma means the virtues partaking of enlightenment. In short, it is the virtues contributing to the attainment of enlightenment. Bodhipakkhiyadhamma can be separated into 7 constituents, comprising 37 factors altogether. Among these 37 factors, there are 14 different cognizable topics. Please make sure that you understand the above background well.

The 7 constituents of Bodhipakkhiyadhamma are as follows:

1. Satipat.t.ha-na – The Foundations of Mindfulness. There are 4 factors.
2. Sammappadha-na – The Supreme Efforts. There are 4 factors.
3. Iddhipa-da – The Means of Accomplishment. There are 4 factors.
4. Indri-ya – The Spiritual Faculties. There are 5 factors.
5. Bala – The Energies. There are 5 factors.
6. Bojjhanga – The Factors of Enlightenment. There are 7 factors.
7. Magga – The Noble Path. There are 8 factors.

Constituent 1 is the Four Foundations of Mindfulness that you are practicing now. Mindfulness of the Objects of Consciousness is the virtue. The Objects of Consciousness in the Four Foundations are Ka-ya, Vedana-, Citta and Dhamma. The awareness of Ka-ya, Vedana-, Citta and Dhamma has two purposes.

1. If a person practices Samathabha-vana- (Tranquility Development), he considers the objects with concentration to develop a tranquil mind. Such practice can help attain jha-na sama-patti (a state of serene contemplation attained by meditation).

2. If a person practices Vipassana-bha-vana- (Insight Development), he considers form and name with concentration to develop wisdom enough to see Tilakkhana (the Three Signs of Being), which are impermanence, suffering and selflessness. Such practice can help attain Enlightenment.

Contemplating on Tilakkhana makes one realizes the truth that whatever is attached as self, man or woman is merely form and name. Those forms and names are impermanent, suffering and selfless. There is no essence in them. Then a person will not be attached to pleasant feelings. This is the beginning of the ending of suffering in the future.

So, Satipattha-na is the only way. It is the only way in which the followers accomplish the Truth until they attain the Final Goal. Therefore, a person who wishes to attain Nibba-na has to start with Satipat.t.ha-na in order to attain N~a-n.adhamma (insight), and Nibba-na can be experienced.

N~a-n.adhamma is the knowledge that should be known, comprising 5 topics.

1. Sankha-ra, volitional activities, which are Citta (Mind), Cetasika (Mental State) and Ru-pa (Form).
2. Vika-la, which is anything concerning change to all creatures in all of their existences.
3. Lakkhan.a, which is a sign mark like the character of a state.
4. Nibba-na, which is a state free of defilement, like the Unconditioned. We will also see this clearly as well.
5. Pa๑๑atti, which is a thing that is provided for a matter of communication, comprising legible and audible things.

There are four objects of consciousness in the Foundations of Mindfulness.

1. Ka-ya-nupassana- satipat.t.ha‐na This is the continuous Mindfulness on the body, contemplating on the present moment. Review in-breath, out-breath, major movements – standing, walking, sitting, lying down, minor movements like moving of limbs for example. This is the practice for one to realize that standing, walking, sitting or lying down are body movements that stem from the wind element in the body according to the Mind control. By the Doctrine it is called Ru-pa (Form). This Form stems from the Mind without any controller. In some chapters of the Doctrine, the text mentions about considering the inner body, or internal inner body and external inner body. These words are vocabulary of the Doctrine, which can have many meanings. For example:-

Ka-yeka-ya-nupassi- means seeing the inner body. The word kaye refers to Form and Body, which is kammajru-pa. But the Body is comprised of Mind, Mental State and Form. The word kayanupassi indicates that only concrete objects or natural forms should be contemplated. That means considering the Form only, not the Mind and Mental State which also exist in the Body.

The word inner body, or Body in the Body, refers directly to Form in the Form. There are many Forms in the Body. Consider only one. For example, consider the in- and out-breath using the words ‘rising, falling’. When considering the in-breath, use the word rising. When considering the out-breath, use the word falling. That is considering only one form of wind element, which is called A-napa-nasati (concentrating the Mindfulness on in-breath and out-breath).

The word internal inner body refers to considering one’s own Body. External inner body refers to considering another’s Body.

2. Vedana-nupassana- satipat.t.ha-na. The consideration of Vedana- (Feeling) is used in practicing Insight Development only, whereas the consideration of Ka-ya (Body) can be used to practice both Tranquility and Insight Development. This is because one cannot contemplate Feeling as the Object of Concentration in Tranquility Development to attain Jha-na.

The consideration of Feeling, whether it is Sukhavedana- (Pleasant Feeling), Dukkhavedana- (Unpleasant Feeling) or Upekkha-vedana- (Neutral Feeling), is something that cannot be seen. So, it is not Ru-padha-tu (Form element). It is rather Na-madha-tu (Name element). Feeling arises when there is a cause. It cannot be prevented. Once the cause ends, the Feeling ceases on its own.

Also, the meaning of the Inner Feeling, Internal Inner Feeling or External Inner Feeling are the same as Body, as explained.

As a matter of fact, Feeling arises every moment without any pause. People are pleased or suffer from one moment to the next. Because we feel satisfaction or dissatisfaction, we cannot realize the state of truth. Once it arises, there is only one Feeling at a time. It is Cetasikadhamma (the Mental State), that “dresses” the Mind to actualize it.

3. Citta-nupassana- satipat.t.ha-na. Use Mindfulness to continuously consider the Mind, which is Vinnanakhanda (the consciousness). We have to consider the Mind in order to realize what kind of Mind is arising in that particular moment, whether it is Greedy Mind, Angry Mind, Ignorant Mind, Confused Mind, Concentrated or not Concentrated Mind. So, it can become clear to us that feeling greedy, angry, faith, confused or lazy is a sign of the Mind. They have an abstract nature, which occurs according to cause. Once the cause ends, the sign of the Mind ceases on its own. Nothing remains.

The state that is called ‘Mind’ has no form and cannot be seen. So, it is not physical. It is rather an abstract. It is Na-macitta (Mind Name) not the Namacetasika (Mental State Name) like Feeling. The meaning of Inner Mind, Internal and External Inner Mind are the same as explained before.

4. Dhamma-nupassana- satipat.t.ha-na. Use the Mindfulness to continuously consider the Principles that are Nivarana (Hindrance), Upa-danakhanda (Attachment), A-yatana (Base), Bojjhanga (Wisdom factor) and the Noble Truth, for example. This consideration of Principles is used in practicing Insight Development only, in order to realize both Form and Name. It can also be said that the consideration of Body, Feeling and Mind are all combined in Dhammanupassana- satipat.t.ha-na.

In conclusion, the practice of the Four Foundations of Mindfulness is done to attain wisdom, realizing that Body is just Body, Feeling is just Feeling and Mind is just Mind. All of them are states of nature. They are not beings, not human, not self, not I and not you. Even the Mindfulness or Wisdom that is used in realization of the above are merely a state of nature.

This Dhamma-nupassana- satipat.t.ha-na considers both the physical and the abstract. The wisdom clearly identifies Form and Name, separating one from the other. Form is the Form. Name is the Name. They do not mingle. They are not the same thing. A person who clearly realizes this is classified as having accomplished Na-maru-papariccheda๑a-n ฺa, which is the first level of Insight, enabling him to pursue the way to attain the Noble Path in the future.

The fruits of practising the Four Foundations of Mindfulness are as follows.

1. Contemplating on Ka-ya-nupassana- satipat.t.ha-na (Body Foundation). The Object of Consideration is Ru-pakhandha (Form Aggregate). This Foundation is suitable for a person with Tanha-carita (Desirous Intrinsic Nature), because the mental reflex attained in meditation is Asubhasa๑๑a- (Impurity Perception), which will do away with Subhasa๑๑a-(Purity Perception).

2. Contemplating on Vedana-nupassana- satipat.t.ha-na (Feeling Foundation). The Object of Consideration is Vedana-khandha (Feeling Aggregate), which is a refined Object. This is suitable for a person with Desirous Intrinsic Nature because the mental reflex attained in meditation is Dukkhasa๑๑a- (Suffering Perception), which can do away with Sukkhasa๑๑a- (Pleasant Perception).

3. Contemplating on Citta-nupassana- satipat.t.ha-na (Mind Foundation). The Object Consideration is Vi๑๑a-n ฺakhandha (Consciousness Aggregate), which is not a very vast Object. This is suitable for a person with Dit.t.hicarita (Dogmatic Intrinsic Nature) because the mental reflex attained in meditation is Aniccasa๑๑a- (Impermanent Perception), which can do away with Niccasa๑๑a-(Permanent Perception).

4. Contemplating on Dhamma-nupassana- satipat.t.ha-na (Principle Foundation). The Objects of Consideration are both Form and Name, which are very vast Objects. This is suitable for a person with Dogmatic Intrinsic Nature because the mental reflex attained in meditation is Anattasa๑๑a- (Selfless Perception), which can do away with Attasa๑๑a-(Self Perception).

Therefore, the purpose of contemplating the Foundations of Mindfulness is to accomplish wisdom enough to realize the fact of what the Form or Name regarded as beautiful, pleasant, permanent or existing really is. That is to make it clear in mind that such states comprise Tilakkhan.a, i.e., Impermanence, Suffering and Selflessness. Practicing the Four Foundations should be done with Mindfulness and Clear Consciousness.

Mindfulness in this case refers to being firm in considering body, feeling, mind and mind-objects in order to attain enough wisdom to see that Form and Name are Impermanent, Suffering and Selfless.

Clear Consciousness in this case refers to scrutinizing until realizing that the above consideration is useful. It should be done very often to enable wisdom to grow, and Enlightenment to be attained in due course.

It should be understood that once scrutiny consisting of wisdom as aforesaid occurs to anyone, such a person is near Enlightenment. This is because Natthi jhanam. apa๑๑assa – scrutiny does not occur in those without Wisdom. Natthi pa๑๑ a- ajha-yino – Wisdom does not occur to those who do not scrutinize. Yamhi pa ๑๑a- ca se ve nibba-na santike – When the scrutiny of timely wisdom occurs to anyone, he is then near Enlightenment.

Constituent 2 is Sammappadha-na – The Four Supreme Efforts. Right Effort that can be classified as Supreme Effort has to be comprised of two principles.

1. There has to be much effort. Although blood and flesh run dry, leaving only bones wrapped by the skin, should the required state be not attained the effort should not dwindle.

2. The Supreme Effort, or Sammappadha‐na, includes four points.

2.1 The effort to prevent demerit that has not yet occurred from happening.
2.2 The effort to get rid of demerit that has already occurred.

2.3 The effort to make merit that has not yet occurred happen.

2.4 The effort to enhance merit that has already occurred.

N.B. Normally, occurred demerit must have already ceased; therefore, it is not possible to get rid of occurred demerit. The effort in this point merely refers to not thinking of it again. When the demerit is brought back to mind, it causes tarnish and anxiety in the mind. That means demerit re-occurs in the mind-avenue. So, effort has to be made until it is forgotten and set a firm resolution that no demerit will be made again. This is the effort to get rid of occurred demerit.

In another meaning, it is explained that some demerits made have born fruit, yet some have not because the timing is not right. None of those will just disappear. However, in any existence that Sakka-yadit.t.hi (Self-illusion) can be done away with, using the Four Supreme Efforts, one can get rid of all occurred demerits in such an existence.

Constituent 3 – Iddhipa-da.

The Means of Accomplishment is called Iddhipa-da. Accomplishment means attaining Tranquil Mind or Mindset on the Right Path. These Means are for accomplishing the meritorous attainment only. They are :-

1. Chanda (consent) or the pleasure to do.
2. Viriya (effort) or trying very hard.
3. Citta (mind) or a firm mindset.
4. Vimam. sa- (investigation) or wisdom.

It should be noted here that the factors of Iddhipa-da are the same as those of Adhipati, which are also means of accomplishment. The difference is Adhipati can be applied to all kinds of work – merit and demerit alike. But the word Iddhipada applies to meritorous work only. And the work has to be for the attainment of Mahagatakusala (Merit of the Great Way), which is Tranquil Mind and Lokuttarakusala (Merit of the Supramundane), which is Mindset on the Right Path only.

For example, a thief accomplishes his task because he tries and uses his wits to look for ways until he can commit a crime. His effort and wits are Adhipati, i.e., his leader. But they cannot be called Iddhipada.

Please understand that the doctrine called Iddhipada must be for accomplishing Jhanacitta (Tranquil Mind) and Maggacitta (Mind on the Right Path) only. Thus, even the Consent, Effort, Mind and Wisdom of the Arahant are not called Iddhipada because he has already attained the Final Goal.

Moreover, in order to accomplish the task, there are four factors, which are constituents of Iddhipada. But the rising of each factor may not be equally strong. Sometime Consent is strong. Sometime Effort is strong or Mind is strong or Wisdom is strong. Should any factor be strong, it is classified as Iddhipada in that moment.

Constituent 4 – The Five Indri-ya.

Indri-ya means Spiritual Faculties that come with a person. It can be meritorious or demeritorious. But there are only five Spiritual Faculties in the Virtues Partaking of Enlightenment, which we are talking about now. They have to be meritorious, i.e., attaining Jhana and the Noble Truth only. They are:-

1. Saddhindri-ya This is when faith dominates the Objects of Consciousness. This faith has to come from meditation. It is not just ordinary faith. Ordinary faith is not powerful because it can be demolished by demerit. So, it has to be faith that has arisen from all kinds of meditation like a‐na‐pa‐nasati (concentrating the Mindfulness on in- breathe and out-breathe), for example. This kind of faith is very strong and adherent to the mind. It is called Bha‐vana‐ saddha‐ (Faith from Meditation). Demerit can hardly cause faith to deteriorate. Especially, faith from Meditation cannot deteriorate by demerit at all. This Faith from Meditation is called Saddhindri-ya (Faith Faculty).

2. Viriyindri-ya This is when effort dominates consciousness. The effort has to comprise four complete factors in Supreme Effort. Only then it can be called ViriyinIndri-ya (Effort Faculty) in the Virtues partaking of Enlightenment.

3. Satindri-ya. It is the Mindfulness of the present moment, which arises from the Foundations of Mindfulness, that we call SatinIndri-ya (Mindfulness Faculty).

4. Sama-dhindri-ya. The concentration on the Object of Consciousness and not losing track is called Sama-dhinIndri-ya (Meditation Faculty).

5. Pa๑๑indri-ya. In the state that many faculties arise, the wisdom that leads to realizing that Form, Name, Aggregates, Bases and Elements are of the nature of impermanence, suffering and selflessness. They are cycles of sufferings, full of harm.

Moreover, please understand that Indri‐ya (Faculties) in Virtues Partaking of

nlightenment lead to the attainment of Nibba‐na and Merit of the Great Way only.

Constituent 5 – Bala

Bala (Energy) in the Virtues Partaking of Enlightenment refers to meritorious Energy only. This kind of energy has two main characteristics. One is endurance and not wavering. The other is intentionally crushing hindrances. So, there are only 5 Energies:

1. Saddha-bala. Faith is the energy to endure and crush hindrances like Tan.ha- (Desires) for example. This Faith has to come from meditation. It is not just ordinary Faith, so that it has enough Energy to endure and crush Desires.

2. Viriyabala. It has to be a Supreme Effort so as to certainly endure and crush Kosajja – Laziness, which hinders the practice.

3. Satibala. Mindfulness in Objects of Consciousness has to become an Energy force so as to be able to go up against Carelessness – the enemy.

4. Sama-dhibala. Not only is Consciousness the dominant state of mind, but it also has to be an Energy Force, unwaveringly enduring against Vikkhepa – Diffusion, which hinders the practice.

5. Pa๑๑a-bala. The wisdom has to be energetic enough to crush Sammoha – Ignorance, for example.

Therefore, in practicing either Tranquility Development or Insight Development, it is important that these five Energies are equally strong. If any one Energy force is weak, the practice cannot be firmly established.

Constituent 6 – Bojjhanga.

The word Bojjhanga has the following meaning. Bodhi is Enlightenment. Bojjhanga is Factor of Enlightenment. In conclusion, it is Factor that enables Enlightenment, i.e., being enlightened of the Four Noble Truths. The ‘thing’ that is enlightened of the Four Noble Truths is Maggacitta (Mind on the Right Path). There are 7 Factors enabling the Mind to be enlightened. Each has to derive from the correct logic as follows.

1. Satisambojjhanga. Mindfulness has to derive from concentrating on the Four Foundations, not just ordinary Mindfulness. Such Mindfulness has to be upgraded to be Indriya (Faculties), Bala (Energies), then to be Bojjhanga. It has to be Right Mindfulness which stems from the power of Insight Development, in order to do away with negligence.

This kind of Mindfulness is called satisambojjhanga. It can cause Maggajhana (Level of Tranquility along the Path), which in turn enables the enlightenment of the Four Noble Truths. Those who attain this can later become one of the 8 types of Noble Person.

Please understand that the Mental State of Mindfulness, which can be called Bojjhanga, has to be wholly of 4 factors.

1.1 Mindfulness and Clear Consciousness have to be upon the Four Foundations of Mindfulness. Objects of Concentration have to come from the Foundations. Be mindful in Clear Consciousness in the Four Foundations of Mindfulness.

1.2 The one who practices has to refrain from association with those who do not practice the Foundations of Mindfulness.

1.3 The one who practices has to associate with those who have correctly practiced the Foundations of Mindfulness and understand them well.

1.4 It is necessary to be mindful of every moment in every posture without interruption.

These four factors help Satisambojjhanga to arise. Should these 4 factors combine together, the Satisambojjhanga that has not arisen can come about without difficulty.

It is clear that Satisambojjhanga has to stem from Insight Development and nothing else. Observing the Precepts and meditating alone cannot enable it to arise. One has to practice Insight Development using the Four Foundations of Mindfulness as well.

2. Dhammavicayasambojjhanga. This factor is the Wisdom that realizes states of forms and names as impermanent, suffering and selfless, i.e., cannot be controlled. This Wisdom is on the path to higher knowledge, to enlightenment and to Nibba-na.

So, the Wisdom that can attain the state of Dhamavicayasambojjhanga is not ordinary Wisdom. Rather, it has to be Wisdom that has arisen from meditation practice using the Four Foundations of Mindfulness. This Wisdom has to derive from Iddhipada (Means of Accomplishment), Indri-ya (Faculties) and Bala (Energies).

Please have correct understanding about this. Dhammavicayasmabojjhanga has to be wholly comprised of 4 factors.

2.1 One has to understand six Vipassana-bhu-mi, i.e., Khandha, Ayatana, Dhatu, Indriya, Paticcasamuppada and Noble Truths; in short, states of Form and Name.

So, when we contemplate form and name, we in fact contemplate the Six Vipassana-bhu-mi (Insight Planes). But the uneducated cannot understand and be proficient in the Planes of Insight Meditation. Those who have been familiar with the Scriptures can select one of the planes for consideration according to their own liking. These Insight Planes are Objects of Consciousness for Wisdom in order that Dhammavicayasambojjhanga can arise.

2.2 Each faculty has to be equally strong. Wisdom and Faith have to be equally powerful when meditating. If Faith is to powerful, there will be less reason. If Wisdom is too powerful, although it is possible to understand everything, dhamma cannot be attained without Faith.

Effort and Concentration are the same. If one is more or less powerful than the other, Dhammvicayasambojjhanga cannot arise either. If Concentration is too powerful, there will be tranquility. The practicer will enjoy such tranquility but not attain anything. Therefore, it takes understanding to adjust both Indriya to be equally powerful.

If Faith and Concentration are strong, satisfaction will arise. If Wisdom is too strong Vicikiccha (Skepticism) will arise. The practitioner will be perplexed and try to think why something is so. It should be this. There will be too much thinking. Or if the scripture plays too important a role, the present moment will be shaken. The practitioner will try to think ahead, according to what is stated in the Scriptures. This factor of Bojjhanga cannot be attained.

If there is too much Effort, there will be confusion. Too much Concentration causes a drowsy and idle appearance. The practitioner is pleased with being in tranquility but will lack effort to attain the dhamma.

But Sati (Mindfulness) is unlike others. It is very good to have Mindfulness sufficient enough to be conscious of every moment. So, practice more Mindfulness and the practitioner will know about occurrence.

2.3 The practitioner has to associate with other Insight Development practitioners who understand the state of form and name in order to exchange experience.

2.4 The practitioner has to have enough Mindfulness to be conscious in every posture because Wisdom in this category has to be contemplated on the rising and ceasing of Form and Name, or characteristics of Form and Name. Otherwise, Bojjhanga in this category cannot be attained.

3. Viriyasambojjhanga stems from efforts in the Four Supreme Efforts. However, the Efforts can be upgraded to Bojjhanga when one is the cause of another.

Please understand that efforts can only be a factor of Bojjhanga when they are perfect. The practitioner has to know and have confidence in Effort, that everything required depends on relentless effort. Without effort there can never be success.

Associate with hard workers. Avoid unreliable idlers. Be confident that only these Four Foundations of Mindfulness are what all the Noble monks have practised. For that reason, they have passed through to attain the state of Noble Person.

4. Pi-tisambojjhanga. Rapture or delight can arise in both Tranquility Development and Insight Development. In Tranquility Development, Piti (Rapture) is the delight that has arisen according to each level of jhana (state of serene contemplation) attained. In Insight Development, Piti is the joy of practicing Insight Development.

The person who practises the Foundations of Mindfulness, when his Sati (Mindfulness) catches up with Aramana (sense-objects) and Wisdom arises so that he understands the states of Form and Name, he realizes their Tilakkhana; being fully aware of himself with all effort, he is naturally delighted.

Rapture in Insight Development can destroy idleness and boredom. Recollection of the virtues of the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha and recollection of the merit of donation and the virtue of Enlightenment are causes of Rapture.

Pi-tisambojjhanga can arise if a person avoids association with the faithless, putting effort in practicing the Foundations of Mindfulness, complete with the mentioned merits.

5. Passaddhisambojjhanga has the character that causes a peaceful and comfortable mind. This refined, calm feeling of Passaddhi can cause misunderstanding. It can be mistaken for Enlightenment, which is a Vipassanupakilesa (Defilement of meditation). This kind of mentioned Passaddhi (Calmness) cannot be called bojjhanga, even if it occurs during meditation. A true Passaddhi that can be classified as a factor of Bojjhanga has to come with the realization of Tilakkhana.

So, Passaddhisambojjhanga can arise only when the following conditions are fully met.

5.1 Reasonable consumption of food, in quantity and quality.
5.2 Comfortable weather
5.3 Comfortable posture, without forcing too much.
5.4 Consider and believe that good deeds are one’s own refuge.
5.5 Refrain from association with immoral people.
.6 Associate with moral people who are well composed and do not talk non-sense.
5.7 Be alert with Mindfulness and Clear Consciousness in every moment and every posture.

Passaddhisambojjhanga (Calmness as a Factor of Enlightenment) arises in those who fully meet the above conditions. In fact, Passaddhi has not come from anywhere other than Pi‐ti (Rapture). That is, once Pi‐ti arises Passaddhi also does.

When Rapture is strong, i.e., sublimely delighted, Calmness cannot be recognized. Once Rapture is pacified, Calmness can be recognized. It then becomes clearer. So, one is the factor of the other thus.

6. Sama-dhisambojjhanga. There is this factor in both Tranquility and Insight Development because a person who has attained Jha-na can also bring that level of Jhana into contemplation in order to attain Insight Development as well. That kind of Sama-dhi is the Object of Consciousness in Insight practice. But Sama-dhi (Concentration) in the Jha-na state is Appana-sama-dhi (Absorption Concentration).

Sama-dhisambojjhanga can arise only when the following conditions are met.

6.1 The Four Paccaya, such as food, are kept clean.
6.2 Practise so as to attain an equal level between Faith and Wisdom, and also an equal level between Effort and Concentration. Do not let one be stronger than the other.
6.3 Understand how to retain Nimitta (Mental Reflex) in Samatha (Tranquility) meditation and A-raman.a (Objects of Consciousness) in Vipassana (Insight) meditation. Contemplate on it. Understand how to uplift Mind in order to strengthen it.
6.4 If Effort is weak, use Wisdom to ponder in order to strengthen Effort, so that Effort and Concentration are equally strong. Rapture has to strenghten Effort.
6.5 If Effort and Concentration weaken, there will be more confusion. Confusion is a defilement that causes Nivarana (Hindrances). In this case, adjust Mind to be in the present moment.

Not being in the present moment is a kind of Hindrance. Whenever one is in the present moment confusion caused by Hindrances cannot occur. Confusion occurs because Mindfulness in the present moment weakness. One always has to try keeping Mind in the present. Then confusion will die down automatically. There is no other way to control it because everything exists according to cause and effect, not according to requirement.

6.6 Enjoy carefulness. Be mindful all the time. That is, contemplate on everything. Do not forget contemplation. Practice meditation according to Carita (the intrinsic nature of a person). Get rid of anxiety, which is a hindrance. Refrain from association with talkative people. Associate with well-composed people.

For those who practice Tranquility Development, before bringing the Jha-na state up as an A-raman.a (Object of Concentration) they have to be proficient in that Jha-na state first. A newly attained Jha-na state cannot be brought up as Object of Concentration.

The practitioner has to be mindful with clear consciousness in every present moment as well. Once well equipped like this, Sama-dhisambojjhanga will arise.

7. Upekkha-sambojjhanga has a neutral characteristic, with full confidence in karma that everything will be according to the result of karma. The word ‘neutral characteristic’ means, not being happy nor suffering from whatever occurs to oneself. This is because the practitioner firmly believes that all creatures will be thus according to the power of their own karma. No one can undo previous deeds. So, while practising meditation, the practicer has to be emotionally neutral.

Factors assisting Upekkha-sambojjhanga to rise are as follows.

7.1 The practicer has to contemplate until realizing and understanding that the state of being in the present moment is not an animal or person. It is merely Form and Name.
7.2 Set a neutral mind on all volition, that all is impermanent, suffering and selfless. There should be no regret on any loss.
7.3 Refrain from association with people who still cling to conventional thinking of self, mine and theirs.
7.4 Associate with people who understand volition and know the state of being.
7.5 Be mindful with clear consciousness in every present moment. Be firmly restrained and neutral. Upekkha-sambojjhang is one important factor of Bojjhanga. It is like being able to let go; therefore, there is enough wisdom to be enlightened in the Noble Truths.

The importance of Bojjhanga lies on Insight not Tranquility. I refer to Tranquility Development in my explanation for the sake of those Tranquility Practitioners who would like to take up Jha-na state as an Object of Concentration.

So, Tranquility that can be a factor of Bojjhanga refers to a Tranquility level that can apply as an Object of Concentration only. This is because Bojjhanga can only arise from practicing the Four Foundations of Mindfulness. Bojjhanga in Bodhipakkhiyadhamma is Dhamma (Principle) in Dhamma-nupassanasatipat.t.ha-na. But the strength and working force of the state are more powerful according to the plane of consciousness.

Some may think that he has been practicing the Foundations of Mindfulness for quite a long time with good consciousness, but cannot understand why the path has not been attained. Please understand that one of the factors, like Mindfulness, Wisdom, Effort, Faith or Concentration, might not be strong enough to become Bojjhanga, which is the enlightenment factor.

So, it is necessary for the practitioner to survey his own A-raman.a and fine tune the deficient ones. The practitioner must know this much. Do not despair. Do understand that it is not easy to attain enlightenment in the Four Noble Truths. It is necessary to understand cause and effect in detail. There is only one way, which is practicing the Foundations of Mindfulness.

Constituent 7 – The Eightfold Path.

The Path classified in Bodhipakkhiyadhamma refers to the Right Path only; there are only eight, called the Eightfold Path. They are:-

1. Samma-dit.t.hi (Right View). The practitioner has to have Right View, that Body or Volition which has been compounded has no essence. It is only the nature of Form and Name. Moreover, Form and Name have the nature of impermanence. They change all the time. They have the nature of suffering because they keep changing. They also have the nature of selflessness, that is, they cannot be controlled. The state of Form and Name are according to cause and factors. Once the cause ends, they end accordingly. They are not under the control of anyone.

2. Samma-sankappa (Right Intention). This is Right Thought, not going astray. It can be called a supporting thought of Right View, because Right Intention only thinks of ways to get away from the cycle of suffering.

3. Samma-va-ca- (Right Speech). This is speaking the right thing only, which means being restrained in speech, i.e., no lying, no rude words, no inciting and no nonsensical talk.

Please note that observing the Eightfold Path is like observing the precepts more strictly, because one has to restrain physical and verbal acts. This includes all kinds of wrong speech, such as telling lies. There should be no teasing or verbally deceiving others. One should refrain from all kinds of rude words, including sarcasm. Do not incite or provoke. Refrain from nonsensical talk even if it is a joke, including boasting about one’s own virtue.

4. Samma-kammanta (Right Conduct). This means being mindful in all conduct. Refrain from causing suffering to others even if it is merely a joke. The observer of the Eightfold Path has to refrain from so doing.

5. Samma-a-ji-va (Right Livelihood). It is forbidden to earn a living in a wrong way, such as committing crime for a living, causing suffering to others for a living, like butchering, counterfeiting, etc. In the case of a monk, wrong livelihood means things like establishing himself as magical, giving hints to winning lottery numbers and other activities not suitable for a monk.

6. Samma-va-ya-ma (Right Effort). This is the effort to be free from suffering according to the principle of Sammappadhana.

7. Samma-sati (Right Mindfulness). This corresponds with the Four Foundations of Mindfulness. The word Mindful in this case means continuously contemplating on the following.

7.1 Contemplating on the Inner Body.
7.2 Contemplating on the Inner Feeling.
7.3 Contemplating on the Inner Mind.
7.4 Contemplating on the Inner Mind-objects.

I shall not repeat it here because I have gone through the explanation in Constituent 1.

8. Samma-sama-dhi (Right Concentration). This is the one-pointedness of mind necessary to attain Enlightenment. Some practice Tranquility Development until a Jhana state is obtained before bringing up the Jhana state as an Object of Concentration. It can be seen that this Eightfold Path is comprised of Precepts, Concentration and Wisdom. In practice, they have to be inter-related in order to accomplish the job of doing away with defilements.

In this Eightfold Path, Right View comes first because it is Wisdom and is very supportive to the practice. In order to attain Right Path, being enlightened in the Noble Truths, lack of Wisdom or weakened Wisdom is not possible. It is explained that once there is right wisdom, one thinks rightly and speaks rightly. Then everything will be right.

So, all righteous people, please acknowledge as such. Once a person speaks rightly, he does the right thing. When a person does the right action, he earns his living rightly. When he has a right means to earn a living, he usually puts an effort into keeping it going. When there is a right effort he keeps thinking of the right thing. Once he thinks of the right thing he concentrates on doing right.

This Eightfold Path exists at both the mundane and the supra-mundane level. The difference is, at the mundane level the Path can exist one by one. But at the supra-mundane level, it has to be an Eightfold Path. Then the Tisikkha – Morality, Concentration and Wisdom – can be complete. At the mundane level, Path can be of other A-raman.a (Object of Concentration). But at the supramundane level, the Eightfold Path can be of no other Object than Nibba-na. The Precepts at the mundane level is just abstaining from what should be abstained from that exist in that particular moment. But Virati-cetasika (Mental State of Abstinence) or Morality at the supra-mundane level has the duty to do away with defilements, not only abstaining from wrong action in body speech and mind. The function of the Path at the supramundane level can eliminate defilements once and for all. But the Path at the mundane level can only suppress it temporarily while practicing Tranquility Development. This suppression is called Vikkhambhanapaha-na (Abandoning by Repression) or just Tadangapaha-na (Abandoning by Substitution of Opposites). Please understand the Four Foundations of Mindfulness and the Eightfold Path in Bodhipakkhiyadhamma. The first constituent is there to make known Nibba-na. The last constituent is also there to make known Nibba-na as well.

So, in order to attain the Path, the Fruit and Nibbana, it is necessary to follow the middle path, i.e., Majjhima-pat.ipada-, with the Four Foundations of Mindfulness and the Eightfold Path as the starting point as well as the success point. However, while attaining Nibba-na, the whole Virtues Partaking of Enlightenment has to function fully at the same time.

I would like to reiterate something about meditation. It is one important point in the three Saddhamma (Good Doctrine). Apart from Pariyattisaddhamma (Study of the Text), one has to practise, that is Patipattisaddhamma (True Doctrine of Practice). If one desires to be free from the Cycle of Suffering, there is only one way, i.e., practice Insight Development, using the Foundations of Mindfulness and the Eightfold Path as a way to arrive at the third saddhamma – Pativedhasaddhamma (True Doctrine of Penetration) – which will be permanent peace and happiness.

The Buddha praised meditation practice as the ultimate means of paying homage. The idea of practice is taking the state of Form and Name as Objects of Consciousness, or The Way. Use Mindfulness to concentrate on them. Use Wisdom to realize them in order to be crystal clear in every true state of their nature and how one has clung on to them. Then one can eliminate ignorance, which makes one blindly grab for them.

The Buddha reminded those who wanted to correctly practice meditation and succeed that:

1. He must have an instructor, that is a good friend.
2. He must have a tranquil place to practice providing favorable conditions.
3. He must have doctrines, which are true intention, carefulness and wisdom.
4. He must not be pre-occupied with obstructions.

So, practitioners should have proper qualifications like true faith. He has to be debt‐free, healthy – free of serious illness, infectious disease or mental illness.

He then is considered well prepared for practice. Moreover, he should be a disciplined person who is ready to follow every rule of the Meditation Institute.

May happiness and prosperity be with all righteous persons.

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